Key concepts

The following list of key concepts from the previous chapters is a reminder or checklist of what can be used in solving information problems, e.g. in the following exercises.

  • Symbolic representation
    • Symbols, properties and relations
    • Symbols and things
    • Symbols versus implementation mechanisms


  • Graphs: objects and relations represented respectively by vertices (nodes) and edges
  • Directed graphs (digraphs): graphs consisting of nodes and arcs (edges with a direction)


  • Abstraction: visual versus mnemonic
  • Solids and voids in building representations
  • Paradigmatic and syntagmatic dimensions


  • Data and information instances
  • Semantic data types: primary, anti-data, derivative, operational, metadata
  • Information instances by scope: single symbol versus multiple symbols


  • Structured, semi-structured and unstructured information sources
  • Information flow: what, who, how, when
  • Completeness, coherence and consistency
  • Information authorship versus information custodianship
  • Process diagram: sequence of tasks in a digraph representation
  • Information diagram: information instances and flows
  • I‑P‑O: transition from process to information management


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